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Misc. Reminders

© December 2004 Tony Lawrence


This is just miscellaneus stuff my brain needs jogging on now and then. I put it here so I can find it when I can't remember something.. or don't want to write it down again.. it's Windows, Mac, Linux, Unix, whatever..

If you landed here from a search, I suggest doing a CTRL-F or Command-F or whatever it is that searches a web page on your machine. What you were looking for is probably mixed in here somewhere..

FTP using browser with login and password: use ftp://usr:password@ftphost.com*** windows browser !!! ftp !!! login !!! ***

Using a DSL-connected Linux box with one NIC to do NAT/masquerading on a home network. *** !!! nat !!! ***

ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5/oss656b Support Level Supplement (SLS) *** OSS656B User and CPU licenses are not accepted after an upgrade to OpenServer 5.0.7 ***

Windows 2000 and XP have a feature called "digital signing": which is apparently turned on if the server is functioning as a domain controller.

Samba and other non-Microsoft SMB products don't support this yet, though Samba does have it in the 3.0.0 beta

Email client configuration for Spamassassin

Microsoft has "Services for Unix" https://microsoft.com/windows/sfu *** unix on windows unix emulators ***

Changing a vsifax device: vfxadmin device -u -v /dev/tty1a fax1

Microsoft XP pptp connection: https://www.domain-logic.com/support/secure_tunnel_XP.htm

redhat-config-printer-tui is the text based printer config

redhat-config-network-tui is the text based network config

To view qmail log files and see the dates, pipe to "tai64nlocal" which will convert the stored date format to readable

You can regenerate a new certificate for SME E-Smith by doing the following:
mv /home/e-smith/ssl.{crt,key} /tmp
/sbin/e-smith/signal-event console-save

Or just go to the Directory section and click "Save"

When adding a pci Network card to SCO OSR5, the card should just "pop up" with netconfig - yoyu shouldn't get a whole list of cards to choose from. If it does not, you probably do not have the right driver and should visit ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5/drivers/ to get it. Also use "hw -r pci" to see what is actually installed.

The trick to using netconfig or any of the SCO admin ("scoadmin") tools in character mode is to understand that the TAB key moves between panes - so to move from a sub-pane back to the menus, hit TAB and vice-versa.

If Mozilla starts acting really strange (won't load, won't save messages or hangs dead while posting etc), or is running away sucking up more and more memory and cpu time, try removing it's XUL file - you'll find it down in your home directory ; start there and do a "find . -name 'XUL*'. Try removinig it and then starting Mozilla again.

You can use rdesktop to directly access Windows Terminal Server from a Linux machine. You don't need Tarantella or Citrix.

SCO btld: Install a btld on a running system from a floppy by "mount /dev/fd0/mnt; /etc/btldinstall /mnt"

SCO: A "bad supplemental group" message from su or su - can be caused by the users home directory having been renamed or replaced by an ordinary file.

It would be very unusual to have to run custom in single-user mode- in fact, many times multi-user is required. You can verify and fix permissions and symbolic links while multi-user.

/dev/rStp0 cannot create /dev/rct0 cannot create cannot open /dev/xct0: the tape driver isn't in the kernel or it is incorrectly configured. If trying to access *ct0 and the tape is SCSI, you didn't make it the default tape.

SCO : remove or add a mount point by running "mkdev fs" (this does NOT create filesystems- divvy does that)

Single-user mode is for maintenance- not for when this is your personal machine. You need to be multi-user for services to start and work properly.

SCO: Replacing a tape drive: if the basic type of drive hasn't changed (ide or scsi, etc, same scsi id) you can replace an older tape drive with a newer or larger or even a different brand without relinking the kernel.

The old SCO TA page is presently at aplawrence.com/ta.html

The /etc/services file provides the name mapping for inetd to know what service is required when it sees a connection on a port. For example, all inetd knows is that some network connection is being attempted on port 23. It doesn't know what port 23 is, so it looks that up in /etc/services and finds "telnet". It then checks inetd.conf ( or conceptually in /etc/xinetd.d ) and finds the program that it's supposed to run for telnet.

SCO: access cdrom by first "mkdev cdrom" to add it to the kernel if it is not already there. Be sure you really know whether ide cdroms are slave or master on primary or secondary- the kernel on older versions does not know even if you successfully used it to install. Then "mount -r /dev/cd0 /mnt" is the basic syntax- see "man mount" for more.

Linux ipforwarding
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

You can see a file plainly in a listing but you can't copy it etc.- it says "no such file"- that's probably a symbolic link and the thing it points to is missing. Do "ls -l" to see the link. Or, it could be there are spaces or other control characters you don't see: try "ls -b" or redirect ls to a file and vi the file. A ":l" on a line will show you control characters, etc.

dfspace and df -v and du may disagree about space used and space available. The major difference is du, because of its handling of links, and because it doesn't count the wasted space at the end of allocated blocks.

Machines that hang or freeze for no apparent reason: check first that it really is hung by telneting or sshing from another machine- it may just be the console. If it really is frozen solid, then hardware is suspect: power supply, scsi termination, scsi cables, motherboard.

To change the ip of something like an network printer, edit /etc/hosts if you don't have a DNS server configured For SCO OSR5 or 4.2 run "netconfig" but be sure to edit the OLD address out of /etc/hosts after running netconfig.

SCO: All network ports in use: either you need to increase the number of pseudo ttys ( mkdev ptty or scoadmin network configuration or configure) or possibly you are out of STREAMS memory (check with netstat -m, configure with "cd /etc/conf/cf.d; ./configure" or with the kernel manager)

Dynamic DNS services (search Google for that) allow you to have a DNS name for a dynamic dhcp connection. They work by your computer contacting the DNS provider whenever its ip address changes.

You can often set your default paging program by setting the variable "PAGER"
For example:
export PAGER

There's nothing you HAVE to do when adding memory to a Unix or linux system- the kernel will notice and use the memory. You COULD use that memory for specific tuning needs.

compare files with "diff"- see also diff3, zdiff sdiff

Stuck in a Unix editor? For vi, hit ESCAPE, then ":q!(ENTER)" to get out without writing. If you DO want to write, use ":wq(ENTER)". For emacs, use CTRL-X CTRL-C. If you are stuck in some Emacs command (I HATE Emacs!), try Ctrl-G a couple of times. For "ed", just type "q!(ENTER)", or "wq(ENTER)" if you want to write. If those don't work, just type enter and then ".(ENTER)"

To add a user to a sco system, it's easiest to use "scoadmin" from the command line or the GUI. Use the Account Manager to add the user. You can use "useraddd" from the command line.Adding users on Linux is easy: from the command line, "useradd joe; passwd joe" does a basic user add.

Want to record what you are typing in a shell? Use "script"- see the man pages.

INIT Command respawning too rapidly means that something executed by init is dying immediately- it could be a getty, for example that thinks it sees someone logging in. Look for (for example) both tty1A and tty1a enabled, or similar problems.

Download SCO ssh

SCO Programmers faq and Unixware FAQ temporarily moved to zenez.com

On-line man pages and other documentation: https://www.sco.com/support/docs

If you are getting every other character or so when typing, two processes are reading your port- you probably have (for example) both tty1a and tty1A enabled. Disable one of them. Also check "fuser /dev/tty1a (or whatever port you are on)

Sco boot from older kernel: at boot prompt just type "unix.old"- type "dir" to see available kernels

Unixware single user mode: hit a key while the Unixware splash screen is displayed and you'll get to the boot manager. Type ? or help for help. To boot single user, do
Openserver single user- press enter at Boot: prompt and then give root password at CTRL-D prompt. Linux single user- type "linux single" at Boot prompt.

Installing SCO software/patches is often done with "custom" or "scodamin-> Software Manager". Media images have to be owned by bin for some old versions of custom. Several patches require patching "custom" first, and will say "INSTALL THIS FIRST"- be sure to exit custom after installing these, and then come back in (no rebooting) to install the rest of the patch.

cron jobs run multiple times: if you haven't done something silly, you might just need a patch. For example, even 5.0.4 through 5.06 had this bug; fixed with oss642a patch

eMag SolutionsTape Management, Tape conversion

Very large directories (even if mostly empty) are inefficient and will slow your system down. There's no method to compact them; they must be removed and recreated.

SCO: Stopping a long report from printing: First- shut off the printer- POWER OFF, not just off-line. Next, cancel the print job: "cancel printername" or "cancel printername-12345" if you know the jobs number. Then turn the printer back on.

SCO: Adding tape drives, disks, network cards, parallel and serial ports etc: Most of this sort of thing is down through "scoadmin". On OSR5, many scoadmin tools can be accessed through "mkdev" shortcuts; for example "mkdev lp" "mkdev parallel" etc.
mkdev [ aio apc bitpad cdrom cdrom_iiop dda dos dtfs eccd fd flopti fs getns0 graphics hd hd_iiop high-sierra hostmib hpnp hpps htfs ida ipfilter isapnp juke layers lp modem mouse nis parallel pm ptty re2 rlp scoansi serial shl snmp streams tape tape_iiop tcp vpixld xenix ] ***

SCO: Meaning of boot letter sequences https://aplawrence.com/cgi-bin/ta.pl?arg=10605 - other articles in TA database for older OS versions

SCO: Create SCO OSR5 emergency boot disks with "mkdev fd"

Record keystrokes and screens using the "script" command- see "man script"

SCO: "eeeeeeee" across the screen? Did you leave a floppy in the drive? !!! eeeeeeeeee !!!

SCO: See "man resolver" for /etc/resolv.conf client DNS configuration

"Bad magic number" probably indicates a corrupt binary or a binary from some other OS, or a corrupt tar or CPIO file. The "magic number" is just a certain sequence of bytes at the beginning of a file that tells the OS or some program (like tar) what type of file this is. Look at /etc/magic (a text file) for examples of "magic numbers". See also "man magic".

"no os" means the boot record couldn't load the operating system. Could be from incorrect disk geometry or because it's installed on a partition too "high": on many machines the Unix kernel (or any OS, for that matter) must be below 1024 cylinders- note that this is a BIOS limitation, not the fault of the OS.

SCO: "hw -r ram" gives information about how memory is used by the system. "sar -r 5 5" gives snapshots of how much memory is available now. "hwconfig" shows devices from last boot. System information is in /var/adm logs too. ***

SCO: "hw -r cpu" will show cpu information.

SCO: "hw -r pci" will show pci information.

idmkreg error updating space.c: see SCO's TA and search for that.

Unexplained lockups or freezing can sometimes be caused by defective power supplies. Network lockups are very often defective NIC cards.

You can see the configured disks on a SCO system by examining /etc/conf/cf.d/mscsi or "hwconfig | grep disk". Scsi devices may be probed with "sconf -v' (don't use pre OSR5.0.5) See file systems with "divvy -P -N"

Inbound ppp - be sure to set idle= in /etc/ppphosts to more than 1 or it will fail immediately.

Disable rip by stopping routed and gated from starting in /etc/tcp on SCO OSR5. It's unlikely that you need it, and routers that are incorrectly configured screw up your routes if you run it. See also https://www.pcunix.com/SCOFAQ/FAQ_noping.html

OSR5 custom installable Hylafax binaries can be found at https://www.sco.com/skunkware/osr5/www/hylafax/ .

Add pseudo ttys to OSR5 system: mkdev ptty

If you unplug a PS2 mouse from a machine with PCI cards, you may have a problem on reboot because the interrupt (12) could get assigned somewhere that your OS does not expect it- either put the mouse back, or tell the bios that 12 is used by a legacy card.

"Broken pipe" means what it says: you had a pipeline running (one or more programs feeding data to another) and one of the programs quit.

If you are looking for something like "sudo" in SCO to give superuser privileges to certain users, look instead at the man pages for "asroot", "auth" and "authorize"
For Unixware 7, see "man tfadmin" and "man adminuser".

Most tape cartridges (DAT, QIC, Travan) do not require any formatting step before use.

"Cannot stat" simply means that the file trying to be used is not there or is unusable because of permissions, missing symbolic link, etc. In the case of a device file (/dev/cd0 for example) this could mean that the driver is not installed or functional, or simply that no readable CD is in the drive.

A locked terminal is unlocked by /etc/ttyunlock or in scoadmin->System->Terminal Manager.

The size of a hard drive is calculated by multiplying the number of cylinders times the number of heads times the number of sectors times 512. p>Unlike memory, where a megabyte indicates 1024 x 1024 bytes, a megabyte of hard disk is actually 1,000,000 bytes.

You can't make a shell script suid : it's not a technical issue, it's deliberately prevented for security reasons.

Unlike Linux distributions, SCO currently doesn't provide any way that you can download the OS: see https://www.sco.com/offers/ to get an inexpensive CD.

Dejawin is James River's ICE Terminal Emulation

"warning arp info overwritten" means you have more than one machine with the same IP address on your network.

"Can't run netconfig"- is it possible that you have a non-networking version of SCO?- many, many SCO systems were sold as "Host" versions- they can do multiport serial connections but not tcp/ip- no telnet, ftp, etc. You can upgrade these to the Enterprise version.

There's no point in searching for words like "sco", "unix", "openserver", "open server", "OSR5" or "problem"- everything here relates to Unix, "problem" is a useless search word.

People sometimes get confused and turn on auditing (man ADM auditcmd) when what they really want is System Accounting. System Auditing generates tremendously large audit files that contain information about every system call, every file access, etc. Accounting (see "man ADM acct") keeps records of shell commands run, logins, connect time and disk usage: a much smaller log.

Although you can add users with Scoadmin, you can also use the command line "useradd"

scoadm.txt, scotec0.txt, scotec1.txt, scotec2.txt, scotec3.txt, scotec4.txt, scotec5.txt, scotec6.txt, scotec7.txt: ftp://aplawrence.com/pub download text versions of sco faqs.

A segmentation fault means that a program tried to access memory that doesn't belong to it.

"File Table Overflow" shouldn't be seen on modern kernels with dynamic kernels; on older releases change NFILES by
cd /etc/conf/cf.d

Unix does not use printer drivers. Unix uses scripts.

The "procmail" program (Skunkware) can do such things as automatic reply, vacation messages, context based forwarding and more.

You can't use wild cards with "dd". However, you can do something like this:
for i in VOL.*
echo "next disk"
read ak
dd if=$i of=/dev/fd0135ds18 bs=18k

The htepi_daemon relates to the HTFS file system. See https://aplawrence.com/cgi-bin/ta.pl?arg=109281

By any chance did you mean "P e r l" and not Pearl?

Modify kernel parameters in SCO by cd /etc/conf/cf.d;./configure or see man idtune. *** kernel shmmax ncall streams locks nbuf nhbuf ***

The "/etc/ftpaccess" file controls many aspects of the ftp server daemon, such as who can access the server and how the server acts.*** ftpd ftp ***

bad superblock: without a boot floppy (search for that) and some expert help, you are probably out of luck. The superblock is what says how big everything else is- without it, nothing can happen.

NO OS- operating system not found- boot sector is not being found- could be disk geometry (over 1024 cylinders).

Uninstalling or removing programs is done with "custom" in SCO and "rpm" in many Linux distributions.

I'm no fan of Travan tape drives, but configure them as though they were DAT. *** travan ***

ifor_pmd, failed to initialize policy manager: https://aplawrence.com/cgi-bin/ta.pl?arg=104851

*** No utmp entry, must login from lowest level shell ***: https://aplawrence.com/cgi-bin/ta.pl?arg=104857

*** can't rewrite terminal control entry, can't obtain database information on this terminal ***: https://aplawrence.com/cgi-bin/ta.pl?arg=104588

The Mac OS X "ktrace" and "kdump" are useful for finding out why an application is failing.Linux is "strace".

Users shown as logged in but aren't, utmpx, wtmpx, pseudottys: https://www.sco.com/cgi-bin/ssl_reference?105610

If you see "xxevent" errors, and you have a *** Digiboard ***, check to see if you put the cable on the wrong port of the ports module..

*** portmapper *** is not responding means that there is an incorrect or extra ip address in /etc/hosts for this machine. Remove the incorrect address( this usually happens when you change the tcp/ip address). The portmapper is used by NFS.

Because of the way this engine works, you can't effectively search for "html" or "http"- so I changed it to "web"

Older SCO OSR5 releases didn't have a DHCP client (modern releases do have a DHCP server) built in, but it's available as TLS711

gzip and gunzip tools and many other utilities are found at Skunkware in binary and source format

pkzip and pkunzip tools are found at Skunkware

*** GNU *** tools and other programs are found at Skunkware

*** Drivers *** for graphics and network nic cards are found at Sco's ftp site

Try SCO's Technical Articles Search page for "utmp" problems.

mtools is available from Skunkware, the builtin equivalents on OSR5 are the "doscp" and related commands.

No Wizards here!

SCO Printed DocumentationReal books manuals printed documentation sets.

"Boot Unix no sync" seen after fsck means power off now and then reboot.

The PS/2 style mouse seen on most modern computers is referred to as a "High Resolution Mouse" in 'mkdev mouse'.

Use the scoadmin license manager to see serial numbers and registration status for installed SCO products. That's available in the GUI or at the command line: scoadmin

*** Create subdirectories with "mkdir" ***. You can create nested subdirectories with all intermediates created with "mkdir -p" , for example "mkdir -p /newdir/another_newdir/another_one"
Remove Directories with "rm -r" or "rmdir"

"hwconfig" and "hw" give hardware information on SCO systems for example *** hw -r pci , hwconfig -c *** "hw" did not exist pre- 5.0.4 .

When establishing user equivalency for rsh, rcp and rlogin, remember that root plays by different rules: you must use a .rhosts file; hosts.equiv will NOT work for root.. Also note that entries in hosts.equiv or .rhosts must match the name that the other computer will be seen as- ping it to see for sure what name will be used. Use fully qualified names when necessary. Finally, .rhosts MUST be owned by the user (root for root logins) and be chmod 700

file name auto completion is a feature of some shells (like bash and ksh), not of the OS itself. Read the man page for your shell or switch to a shell that provides what you want (for example, bash for SCO is availble from Skunkware)

"hwconfig" doesn't necessarily list devices as they are configured in your system for ISA, IDE and scsi devices- it's just what you previously told the driver- so it can say a card is at IRQ 5, but that doesn't mean it really is.

PATH is set in /etc/profile, but may be over-ridden in the user's $HOME/.profile. Also see /etc/default (sets supath) and understand that cron sets its own PATH. Root's PATH DOES NOT INCLUDE THE CURRENT DIRECTORY BY DEFAULT!

PATH must be exported ("export PATH") to be passed on to another program.

Visionfs users and Unix users aren't necessarily the same thing, and even if they are, passwords can be different. Check that the user exists by using the /usr/vision/bin/visionfs command to list users and set passwords, etc.

Tape status offline- try a "tape reset ( "mt reset" on some systems).

Panic cannot exec /etc/init ( PID 1) status 9 *can* be caused by a missing symbolic link for /usr/lib/libc.so.1
If so, you need to boot from other media and recreate the link- it's in /opt/K/SCO/Unix/5.0.*/usr/lib
This can also be caused by /etc/init's link being missing; the real file for that is in /opt/K/SCO/Unix/etc
Other circumstances can also cause this-

SCO: Check disk space with "df -v". Installed memory: "memsize". Memory usage: "sar -r 5 5"

SCO: Generally you can remove a printer with "/usr/lib/lpadmin -x printername". Under some circumstances you may also have to manually edit /etc/printcap, manually remove /usr/spool/lpd/printername and perhaps even remove it from the /usr/spool/lp hierarchy manually.

When using "find" with wildcards, be sure to quote the argument:
find / -name '*.html'
Find is unusual in that regard- in most cases you would never want to quote wildcards, because ordinarily the shell does the expansion: programs like "ls", for example, don't even understand wild cards at all. Find, however, is a program that needs to see the actual pattern you are trying to match.

To trace binary programs, use "strace" on Linux and "trace" on SCO.

General errors are often specific to the application or program you are running. If it is a numeric Unix error, you can look in /usr/include/errno.h, but that may not really gain you much. On Linux, /usr/include/asm/errno.h is most of what you might need, but there is more spread around in different places.

Programmer FAQS: The UnixWare 1.x and 2.0 Programmer FAQ https://www.freebird.org/faq/developer.html
The comp.unix.sco.programmer FAQ https://www.zenez.com/cgi-bin/scoprogfaq/faq.pl

Install termlite by accessing the SCO box from Network Neighborhood (you need to be authenticated properly) and then drill down to Termlite under Vision Tools. Double click on the install icon to install. On some versions, you may need to copy "termlite.no" to the Windows Termlite folder (Windows -> Program Files -> Termlite) also.

If only root can print, suspect permissions on the lp binaries themselves- these are setuid on most OSes and if that is lost, or if they have the wrong ownership, ordinary users can't print.

Many unix daemons are written to re-read their configuration files or restart when sent a "kill -1"

"invalid old password"- you aren't paying attention- the first thing passwd asks is for your OLD password- you need to give it that BEFORE you can change it to something new.

You generally don't mount tape drives in Unix/Linux - tape drives usually don't have filesystem drivers.

Trying to change your password but it just bombs out immediately if you aren't root? Check perms on /dev/tty - should be rw-rw-rw

If the tcp/ip service is not starting, it's almost always because the nic card is not recognized. That's often a driver problem- check for newer drivers. For SCO, check ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub

To set up ntp ( Network Time Protocol ), you need a public ntp server to access. The easiest way to find one is to search Google for "public ntp server". Pay attention to the guidelines for use: don't use primary servers, don't be adjusting your time every second.

A warninng from crontab that commands will be exceuted using /bin/sh just means that crontab noticed that you aren't using /bin/sh. As it is possible for a sript designed for ksh (for example) not to work in sh, crontab is just being helpful.

SCO: cannot create /dev/lp0: parallel ports aren't automaticaly in the kernel. Run "mkdev parallel"

Not all file systems support symbolic links (ln -s).

If you get an error referring to /usr/local/lib/libz.so.1 you need libraries from the Skunkware Glib set for these to work.

Browser plugins: Netscape, Mozilla, Konqueror (Linux). Codeweaver Crossover Plugin runs native Windows plugins such as QuickTime 5 and Macromedia Shockwave

Linux: determine or force link speed and duplex with mii-tool *** link speed full duplex half duplex ***

Using the SCO Openserver Duplicate Printer function may create a "users.allow" file that includes all current users. Unfortunately, users added later won't be automatically added to that file, so you may want to delete it.

Linux console screensaver: setterm -blank 3 (or whatever)

https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/es.html *** Stallion terminal server EasyServer ***

https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/axel.html"> *** axel terminal server ***

https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/jaz.html *** jaz drive

https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/apc.html *** apc ups wiring ***

https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/uucptcp.htmlUUCP over TCP/IP *** uucp ***

Morning Star PPP: https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/mst1.html *** ppp ***

https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/bootp.html *** bootp tftp ***

https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/dhcp.html *** dhcp osr5 ***

VESA video drivers osr5: https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/vesa.html *** vesa gui ***

Using custom: https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/custom.html *** custom ***

*** ipx nwlogin netware *** https://www.tkrh.demon.co.uk/cmds.html

Mac OSX https://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=107054 *** Mac OS X 10.2: !!! Error 1282 !!! When Adding Printer !!! cups !!! ***

Windows: process stuck because some hidden window is asking for input but you can't move the front window? Try Alt-Spacebar and choose Maximize.

Mac OSX start/stop Kerio:
sudo SystemStarter stop KerioMailServer
sudo SystemStarter start KerioMailServer

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Inexpensive and informative Apple related e-books:

iOS 8: A Take Control Crash Course

Sierra: A Take Control Crash Course

Take Control of Pages

Take Control of Apple Mail, Third Edition

Take Control of Automating Your Mac

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