You might also be interested in Caches.
For detailed specifics on CPU caching and SMP design, see Curt Schimmel's Unix Systems for Modern Architecture.
Newsgroups: comp.unix.sco.misc From: Bela Lubkin <email@example.com> Subject: Re: 5.0.5 MP system running slowly with 1Gb RAM Cc: Graham Nicholls <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Fri, 10 Dec 1999 23:28:57 GMT Message-ID: <email@example.com> References: <384EACCE.5C69F28E@rockcons.co.uk>
<38504BF5.B17ABAB2@rockcons.co.uk> <3850DB25.E3DAD90B@aplawrence.com> <385131EA.AC3EE945@rockcons.co.uk> Graham Nicholls wrote: > If it is a cache issue, then why have some respondants reported very > good performance with MP systems with 1Gb RAM and only 256k > cache chips ?
There is no linear relationship between size of cache and amount of RAM it can cache. This is a common misconception. Cache designs vary greatly. One of the design parameters is the width of tag RAM entries. Tag RAM entries identify, for each location in the cache, which location in main memory is represented. One common tag RAM width is 8 bits. An 8-bit tag can specify one of 256 locations. An 8-bit tag combined with a 512K direct-mapped cache could cache 256 * 512K == 128MB of RAM. However, most caches today are not direct; 2-way and 4-way associative caches are more common. An N-way associative cache is like N direct-mapped caches of (total size/N). So a 512K 4-way associative cache with 8-bit tags could cache 256 * (512K / 4) == 32MB of RAM. Such a design is improbable; it would almost certainly be designed with wider tags. 4-way 512K with 12-bit tags would be able to cache 2^12 * 512K / 4 == 512MB. You didn't have a performance problem at 512MB, and you do at 1GB. So your cache parameters are some combination which tops out at 512MB. We know one parameter (512K), and we can guess the associativity (1 (direct), 2- or 4-way). The possible combinations are: associativity tag length cache size memory coverage ============= ========== ========== =============== direct-mapped 10 512K 512MB 2-way associative 11 512K 512MB 4-way associative 12 512K 512MB You might be able to fix this. Go into BIOS setup, look for "advanced chipset setup" or whatever it offers. See if it has a "way-ness" knob. If so, reduce it from 4-way to 2-way, or 2-way to direct. With the same tag length, this should double the amount of memory covered.
The Pentium III's L2 cache is inside the CPU. I'm not really sure whether you get to control any of this; and if you do, I'm not sure your BIOS setup will give you access to it. But it's worth a try. I tried to find documentation on cachability ranges for Intel CPUs, but gave up after a while. It doesn't seem to be very public information. >Bela<
Got something to add? Send me email.
More Articles by Tony Lawrence © 2011-07-02 Tony Lawrence