Adding Memory to SCO Unix, tuning NBUF and NHBUF to use that RAM
Note: this is an old article, but the sections about NBUF
etc. are still valid for many SCO systems. Most of the rest is not, so take it with a healthy dose of salt.
One afternoon I decided I needed more memory.
Actually, I had known that I needed more memory for a while.
Upgrades to this and that, especially within the few programs I run
under Merge, had slowly drained away more and more until now there
actually were times when the machine was swapping, and even when it
wasn't quite that bad, the page daemon was running itself ragged,
and sar -r showed a sorry sight. I had increased the Merge memory
setting to 24 megs, but it really needed to go to 48, and I just
couldn't do that with what I had. But I just never got around to
it. Too many other things to do, and because I couldn't even
remember what sort of memory I'd need, I'd have to open the darn
machine, and the case always sticks, and..
You can check your memory size with "memsize" on newer SCO
versions, or by looking in /usr/adm/messages on older versions. To
see how you are using your memory up, use
sar -r 15 15
which will give you fifteen snapshots of memory and swap
usage separated by 15 second intervals. The numbers under the
"freemem" column are free memory pages. Multiply by 4096 to get
bytes, and that's the memory you aren't using right now. If it gets
low enough, then the swap column will start decreasing too, and
then your performance really starts to drag.
Release 5.0.5 also reports availrmem and availsmem. The
first is the number of pages that would be available to user
processes after subtracting kernel usage. The second is simply that
number plus the available swap memory.
Another clue to watch is if the SCHED process has
accumulated any time (ps -p 0). If it has, you've been
But this particular afternoon I just suddenly decided enough was
enough, it's time to do it. So I pried the sticky case off the
machine, leaned it 45 degrees sideways against another shorter box
, pushed some cables out of the way, and identified 2 empty 72 pin
slots. I then realized that I needed to know if it was EDO or not.
I figured it probably was, but.. so I dug through the manual pile
until I found the book for the motherboard, where I had the
original invoice stapled in, and sure enough, it had come with EDO
in originally. Good.
Actually, it would have been very strange to find FPM
(Fast Page Mode Memory) in a 200 MHz machine. EDO or SDRAM are much
more likely. It would have been better to find SDRAM (immediately
identifiable by having 168 pins and not needing to be installed in
pairs), but this was an "inexpensive" box.
Normally, I buy things like that through the web. The pricing is
better, and it gets here in a day or two. But I wanted to do this
NOW. So I left the machine looking like a battlefield casualty, and
hopped in my car.
Another reason I would have been better off on the Web is that I
could have found 64MB modules. Because stores deal with mostly home
users, they seldom have more than 32MB sticks.
BJ's was the destination, because I also needed copier paper,
and pens. I don't need copy paper very often, but I always need
pens. I kid some of my clients that I augment my income by stealing
pens from them, but based on how many pens I go through, I think
it's actually the other way around. I like the Extra Fine Point
Pilot. BJ's sells 'em by the dozen. BJ's prices on memory probably
won't be great, but I want to do this NOW, so I don't care if it's
a bit more. Honestly, I don't care if it's a LOT more, because
anything else is a long way away.
Are you in a rush? The details on how to use the memory,
setting tuning parameters, and observing the results are a bit
For some reason I always think that there won't be a lot of
people at BJ's at 2:00 o'clock in the afternoon. After all, most
people should be safely tucked away in their cubicles, shouldn't
they be? Then why is BJ's parking lot chock full? Oh, well, a
little exercise never hurts. I found a cart with wheels that didn't
fight me too badly, and went inside.
Normally, I'm a sucker for BJ's. I go up and down every aisle,
and I freely admit that I buy things on impulse. Stupid things.
Expensive things. Ridiculous quantities of stupid, expensive
things. You know, stuff. Gotta have stuff.
But this time I had a mission. I went straight to the office
supply aisle, found my favorite pens, went to the paper aisle,
grabbed a box of copy paper, and then wheeled toward the computer
section. I did not look at the multifunction fax/copier/printers,
even though my fax sticks every time it receives anything and then
prints two copies followed by an activity report when I clear it,
and even though my copier refuses to take paper unless I tenderly
hand feed it. No, I didn't care about that; I was here to buy
Hmm, must have missed it. It should be in a locked case, but
it's not. Surely it has yet to get cheap enough to be put out on
display? Nope, not on display. Well, another spin, it's got to be
But it's not. Suspecting the truth, I pushed my cart over to the
service desk and asked. No, BJ's does not sell memory any more.
Oh well, I did need copy paper, and pens, so I paid for those,
abandoned the cart, and walked back to the car.
Way back when, memory was little chips with little metal
legs. You bought it in tubes, and you usually had to straighten at
least a few legs before you started pushing it into your
motherboard. Often, you had a dozen or more chips to stick in, and
it was easy to bend a leg under without noticing. Then, of course,
nothing would work. The arrival of SIMMS was a wonderful day! The
early SIMMS were 30 pin; you'll find those in 486's, though some
486's took a single 72 pin (that is, it didn't have to be installed
in pairs as it does on Pentium motherboards).
Now where? The closest place is Circuit City. I know they won't
be cheap, but anything else is so much farther away. Of course, I
could just order it over the Net and do the install another day,
but.. I want to do this NOW. So it's off to Circuit City. Not so
bad, 20 miles away..
Circuit City's parking lot wasn't full. Circuit City's parking
lot wasn't exactly empty, but I bet most of it was employees. I
gritted my teeth, wondering just how expensive this would be. Well,
I'd come all that way, hadn't I? It would be stupid to go somewhere
So I passed through the unusually large concrete columns that
guard the door. Circuit City must be expecting civil war; those
columns are overkill for automobiles, they could only be to prevent
an attack by armored tanks. Massive electronic merchandise alarm
sensors guard the inner doors; Circuit City doesn't like getting
stuff stolen. Most stores try to make these things unobtrusive and
unnoticeable- not these guys.
I found the computer section right away, but had to wait while a
salesperson explained the history of ink jet printing to a customer
who had no idea what he needed. After he sent that poor fellow on
his way, I raised my eyebrows and asked "Memory?". The salesman
countered with "Sure, what kind of computer do you have?". I was
really tempted to have some fun, perhaps starting with "I'm not
sure, I think it's a TRS-80?", but no, I squelched the impulse and
just said "72 pin EDO".
But what speed? Well, you don't see much 70ns around
anymore, so I assumed he'd only have 60ns. Would it matter anyway?
Probably not, because the motherboard can support mixing speeds
(though there is a flag in the BIOS that needs to be set if there
is any 70ns present), and in reality both 60 and 70 nanosecond
memory are way too slow for anything over 66 MHz. Let's pretend
that a 66 Mhz CPU actually was clicking along executing 66 million
instructions per second (it never would, of course, because
instructions don't necessarily take 1 clock cycle, but just play
along for a moment). If that were true, that CPU needs a new
instruction from memory every 66 millionth of a second. CPU's don't
actually work quite like that; bunches of instruction are read into
cache, and that cache can be being filled even while the CPU is
doing other things, but unless the CPU is looping around
instructions in cache (which it often is), the memory is going to
have to provide data that fast or the CPU will have to wait. So how
fast is 60ns? Well, that's a bandwidth of 32 bits / (60 x 10 -9) or
533 MB/s, and that's giving it the best conditions (ready to be
read, not in the midst of a refresh cycle). In reality, the
bandwidth will be less. That CPU, unfortunately, would need
something like 2112 MB/s if it were running full throttle sucking
down 32 bit instructions as described here (32 x 66 x 10 ^6). Of
course it doesn't, but the point is that memory speeds are way
behind CPU speeds.
Some new types of memory include DDR, RDRAM and MRAM. DDR is
supposed to be twice as fast because it can can be accessed on both
edges of the clock cycle, and RDRAM (RAMBUS), which is already
available in some systems, also works the on both edges of the
clock, but supposedly can run at up to 800 Mhz. However, that's not
quite the advantage it seems, because RDRAM only transfers 2 bytes
at a time- SDRAM does 8 - so it has to run 4 times faster for the
MRAM is a miniaturized version of the old ferrite core memory-
which means that it will retain its contents when shut off- so
"instant on" machines will be possible. This is still a few years
There are other speed limits that seldom get mentioned.
The first is bus speed. In most motherboard designs, the CPU is
running faster than the system bus, which means that the bandwidth
of the bus also limits the system. The bus on this so called 200
MHz machine I'm upgrading here actually has a 66 MHz bus. Faster
machines don't fare much better, even 400 MHz Pentiums limp along
with a 100MHz bus and 100MHz (10ns) memory to match. All of this is
over-simplified: true bandwidth is tremendously complex, but
there's no question that the CPU is going to do a lot of waiting
when it needs to get stuff from RAM. So when does the CPU really
run at its clock speed? Well, not when reading from RAM, certainly.
How about from the cache? You might have noticed that nobody
usually mentions how fast the cache memory is. They tell you how
big it is, but never how fast. How fast would it need to be? Well,
a 200 Mhz CPU would need 5 nanosecond memory. Double that, and
you'd need 2.5 nanosecond memory. These new 500 MHz Pentiums would
need cache memory running at 2ns, and of course the projected 1
Gigahertz machines would need cache twice as fast as that! Do they
have cache that fast? Probably not, not yet anyway.
A few minutes later, having been separated from $168.00
including tax, I was on my way home with two 32MB modules, thinking
that I probably could have saved at least $40.00 buying over the
Net. Well, yes, but then I'd have to WAIT, wouldn't I?
Which is what the CPU does when it can't get what it needs
from cache. Modern systems are really, really smart about
predicting what they will need, and the cache management is really,
really good, so the waiting isn't all that often. Of course, badly
written code can jump all over the place or trample through data
structures in a way that completely defeats everything the
architecture is doing to keep the CPU fed from cache, and big
multiuser systems with lots of users doing lots of different things
are never going to have enough cache at all. Multilevel caches help
some, and having separate code and data caches certainly does,
In twenty minutes I was back looking at the tipped over machine,
ready to install the new memory. These modules always have one side
that has a little cutout shoulder, and that matches with one and
only one side of the arms on the side of the slot it goes into, and
I always have trouble seeing the difference, and am never sure
which direction to turn the darn thing. The problem is that I'm
near sighted, but I'm also old enough to be a little far sighted
too, so with my glasses I'm too close to the motherboard to see
everything clearly, and without them I'm too far away. Usually I
have to remove one of the existing chips to see which way the new
ones are supposed to go.
The 168 pin chips are better, in that they have two slots
within the contact edges, and these are off center, so it's obvious
which way they must go to line up.
So I did that, and then put that and the new chips in. These
chips are inserted at a slight angle, and then you rotate them
toward the locking pins and they snap into place. Anybody can do
this. My mother could do this. I tell people all the time not to be
afraid of installing memory. It's easy. You can't go wrong..
usually. The old chip snapped in fine, but the new chips seemed to
be resisting me. They snapped, but it was dull, unsatisfying,
incomplete. It just didn't feel right. But I tried powering it up
anyway, and wasn't overly surprised to see that the memory counted
only up to 64 meg, just as it had before.
Well, darn. I turned the machine off, and tried to get a closer
look at those chips. By removing the power supply, and peering in
from the top (feeling very much like some storybook giant who has
ripped off the top of a house to peer at the inhabitants), I could
see that the new chips weren't at the same height as the old chips.
They were just a tad higher. That could be right, because they
could be a little different design, but I didn't think so. So I
popped out the two new chips and one of the old again and compared
them side by side. Same height, so they should be the same height
when inserted. Something was wrong.
What about parity? Could that be why they didn't
Well, no. Actually, you may have noticed that the salesman
didn't ask me if I needed parity memory. I didn't, and it's pretty
rare to find it nowadays, but it could have been a problem. How do
you know? Usually your motherboard will tell you. There's also ECC
memory, but that's even more rare in PC's. You used to be able to
tell by counting the chips on the SIMM; if were 3, 9 or 12 or 24
chips, it was a parity SIMM. Apparently that's not always the case
anymore, though they say it usually is.
Here's the rules for parity and ECC:
You can use non-parity chips in a parity system if you
disable the parity checking in the BIOS. You cannot use parity
chips in a non-parity system.
You can use a parity module in an ECC system, but you
can't use an ECC chip in a parity system. I've never understood
that entirely, but it's what they tell me.
I put the chips back in, and again the snap was just not what my
fingers wanted to feel, and again I could see that the new chips
just were not quite seated. I didn't even bother to turn the
machine on; I just took everything out, new chips and old, and then
tried putting the new modules in the slots the old chips had just
come out of. Happily, they felt "right" when they snapped in, and
the old chips seemed very happy to go into the previously empty
slots where I had been trying to install the new memory. Peering
down like the giant again, I could see that all the chips were now
precisely at the same height as the Intel gods intended. I turned
on the machine, and it counted 128 megabytes. Happy day.
On older machines, adding memory would now require that I
go into the BIOS setup (which would have recognized the new memory)
and save it. That always seemed dumb to me: if it already knew how
much memory was in the machine, why did we have to go into the BIOS
at all? New machines just quietly accept the extra
After booting up, I adjusted Merge so that Windows would have 48
meg to play in,which immediately made Quickbooks (which is most of
what I use Windows for) much happier. The difference in performance
was noticeable, and the sar statistics proved it. This is a sar
report from before the memory upgrade:
SCO_SV scobox 3.2v5.0.4 Pentium 03/18/99
12:45:26 freemem freeswp (-r)
12:45:57 unix restarts
13:00:00 3533 256000
13:20:00 1763 255904
13:40:00 1089 255904
14:00:00 134 247496
14:20:00 205 242440
14:40:01 246 201000
15:00:02 135 200736
15:20:02 3499 213240
15:40:01 2206 233864
16:00:03 928 234520
16:20:02 684 234520
16:40:02 2760 216472
17:00:01 5393 221640
Average 1786 231826
Notice that for a good part of the afternoon I was swapping
(freeswp decreased) and that free memory fell very low: 135 pages,
less than 540k available. After the upgrade, sar shows a different
SCO_SV scobox 3.2v5.0.4 Pentium 03/26/99
06:10:30 freemem freeswp (-r)
06:10:30 unix restarts
07:00:01 18911 256000
08:00:00 18755 256000
08:20:00 20988 256000
08:40:01 20392 256000
09:00:00 17246 256000
09:20:00 17176 256000
09:40:00 17432 256000
10:00:00 17481 256000
10:20:00 17473 256000
10:40:00 17471 256000
11:00:00 17497 256000
11:20:00 17464 256000
11:40:00 17431 256000
12:00:00 17607 256000
12:20:00 17618 256000
12:40:00 17711 256000
13:00:01 10741 256000
13:20:00 5369 256000
13:40:00 3593 256000
14:00:00 3728 256000
14:20:01 4100 256000
14:40:00 3258 256000
15:00:01 3573 256000
15:20:00 5252 256000
15:40:00 6611 256000
16:00:01 3878 256000
16:20:00 3114 256000
16:40:01 3103 256000
17:00:00 2542 256000
17:20:00 2490 256000
Average 12421 256000
No swapping at all, and free memory is always above 10 meg (4096
byte pages times 2490). That means I could even use some of that 10
meg to do some other tuning, perhaps increasing disk buffers,
though this machine wouldn't benefit from that because it isn't
used for anything that demands much disk usage- most machines
You'd do that by cd'ing to /etc/conf/cf.d and running
./configure, or by running "scoadmin hardware" and choosing to
"Tune Parameters". You'd choose "Disks and Buffers", and increase
NBUF and probably NHBUF. To what? Well, that depends. There's good
information about that in your on-line help (look under
"Performance Guide"), but if you have memory to burn, you might
start by devoting 30% that memory to extra NBUFS. Note that by
default, NBUFS is calculated from available memory, but it will
only go so high by itself. You can see what it is by checking
/usr/adm/messages: the "i/o bufs =" line tells you what you
currently have. Obviously you want to increase it. So, if I were
going to take some of my extra 10 meg of memory for that, and the
system currently gave me 6652k by default, I'd tell configure to
allocate 10000 NBUF's. That's only using a little more than 3 meg
of my extra memory (6.6 meg was already allocated), but I'm also
going to have to allocate NHBUF's. Those are 1098 bytes each and
for a single processor system I need the nearest power of 2 that's
at least half of what my NBUF's are. That's 8192, so there goes
another 4 meg (assuming that the system had originally allocated
4096 of these when it had 6652 NBUF's). For a multiprocessor
system, you need much more- see the Performance Guide.
On multiprocessor machines, NHBUF is set to the power of 2 that is greater
than or equal to twice the value of NBUF. This reduces the likelihood of
contention between processors wanting to access the same hash queue.
You'd decrease PLOWBUFS. That's a percentage of the
allocated buffers, and by default it's 30% of 6652k, so if you
doubled the NBUF you could drop PLOWBUFS to 15, and so on. If you
allocate too much, even 1% will be too many, and you will have to
wait for SCO to fix this (fixed in 5.0.6 configure). If PLOWBUFS
can't be allocated, you'll get a message that they were converted
to high bufs.
If you leave NHBUF at 0, the documentation says that it will
calculate the appropriate amount for you at boot. You can see what
the results were by using "crash"
echo v | crash | grep buf
(v_hbuf is NHBUF)
If you experiment with this, you may find that the actual
results do not match what you'd expect from the documentation. For
example, an NBUF setting of 8192 will set NHBUF to 8192 also,
rather than 4096. Also, you'll find that entries you make for NBUF
may get rounded up. Obviously the documentation doesn't exactly
So, for the moment, this machine is happy again. It's not
swapping, it's not constantly searching for free memory pages. This
happy state probably won't last too long: new programs gobble up
memory like candy, and if this box survives to the next OS upgrade,
it will probably have to go to 256 meg. Well, that's a few years
down the road. For now, 128 is fine.
See also SCO TA 112723
There are other things you can do with extra memory. Under some
circumstances, you might be able to make use of it as a "ramdisk".
A ramdisk (see "man ramdisk" ) is created simply by using "mknod"
to create a device node with appropriate numbers for the size disk
you want. For example,
mknod /dev/myramdisk b 31 104
would create a 128MB ram disk device (the "31" might not be
correct- check /dev/ram00 on your system and read the man
You'd then use mkfs to create the file system, and then finally
mount it. Examples are given in the man page.
Usually, this wouldn't be a smart use of memory. However, if you
have frequently accessed files that can fit in the amount you can
afford to create (without adversely affecting other performance),
putting them in a ram disk can be a large performance boost. But
consider that allocating that same space to disk buffers might have
exactly the same effect- only experimentation with your environment
could say for sure.
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