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-> Finding yesterdays or tomorrows date.


Finding Yesterdays date




(This post is an update and rewrite of something written several years back)

Scripts sometimes have to deal with relative dates - yesterday and tomorrow are the most troublesome because of variations in the number of days in the month, oddities like leap year and so on. You can write all that out in code ("If it's now the first, decrement the month. If the month is now 0, make it 12..") but that's cumbersome and seldom needed. We can do this using already existing Unix/Linux tools.

Let's look at the Linux way first. This is GNU date, and you won't find these options in "man date" - you have to use "info date" (or "pinfo date" if you hate emacs as I do).

date -d yesterday
date --date=yesterday
 

Easy enough. Things like "date -d '2 days ago'" also work.

BSD systems like Mac OS X don't have that, but they do have "-v" modifiers, and although I may be a bit prejudiced, I like them better. You just follow -v with a number and a modifier. For yesterday:

date -v-1d
 

The really interesting thing about the BSD date is that the -v flags are cumulative and can be absolute:

# I did this on April 19th, 2011
$ date -v2010y # move to 2010
Mon Apr 19 06:08:52 EDT 2010
$ date -v2010y -v3m # and then to March
Fri Mar 19 06:09:19 EDT 2010
$ date -v2010y -v3m -v1d # and then to March 1st
Mon Mar  1 06:09:41 EST 2010
$ date -v2010y -v3m -v1d -v-1d # now go back one day
Sun Feb 28 06:10:01 EST 2010
$ date -v2008y -v3m -v1d -v-1d # same thing for 2008 (a leap year)
Fri Feb 29 06:10:41 EST 2008
 

Finding yesterday's date is easy in languages like Perl:


# this example is programmed for clarity, not efficiency
$rightnow=time();
$rightnow -= (24 * 60 * 60);
print scalar localtime($rightnow);
 

(Article continues after the break)




Tomorrow

I would think that's obvious, but somebody complained in the comments, so:

$ date -d tomorrow  # Linux
$ date -v+1d # BSD, Mac OS X
$rightnow += (24 * 60 * 60); # Perl
 

Caution

Before we look at some of the more difficult ways to manipulate dates, a word of caution is in order: when people ask for something from "yesterday" or "last week", the answer isn't always to subtract one day or seven for a week.

"Last week" can easily mean anything after a week back from the preceding Monday or Sunday - it's more likely to mean that than a strict "7 days back". If a file is produced at a certain time of today and previous versions are archived, "yesterday's file" almost certainly means the last file archived and not the file created at 11:00 PM the previous night.

Even "today" can be vague. It might mean any time back to midnight of the day before, but people can throw it around very loosely and mean "within the past 24 hours". If you are writing scripts, be sure to understand what they really expect.

Unix dates complicate this even more. If we are comparing file date (see File date comparison), are we talking about creation time, the access time, or the modified time?

Harder ways

Just a quick note about "datecalc". We used that on old SCO Unix systems; you might still be able to find it at ftp.jpr.com (dead site?). That gives you the ability to do (for example):

 datecalc + 1
 

There's also Datemath, which is similar.

In the shell (without Gnu date or BSD or Perl or some tool like datecalc or datemath) it can be harder. You'll see people recommend something like:

#!/bin/ksh
yesterday=$(TZ=EST26EDT date +%mm-%d-%yy)  

where the timezone is selected for the proper effect, but that isn't actually going to work always.

You might be lucky. If your date command can handle seconds, you can do:

x=`date +%s`
date -r `expr $x + 86400`
 

Tapani Tarvainen posted a KSH solution:

#! /usr/bin/ksh
# Get yesterday's date in YYYY-MM-DD format.
# With argument N in range 1..28 gets date N days before.
# Tapani Tarvainen January 2002
# This code is in the public domain.

OFFSET=${1:-1}

case $OFFSET in
  *[!0-9]* | ???* | 3? | 29) print -u2 "Invalid input" ; exit 1;;
esac

eval `date "+day=%d; month=%m; year=%Y`
typeset -Z2 day month
typeset -Z4 year

# Subtract offset from day, if it goes below one use 'cal'
# to determine the number of days in the previous month.
day=$((day - OFFSET))
if (( day <= 0 )) ;then
  month=$((month - 1))
  if (( month == 0 )) ;then
    year=$((year - 1))
    month=12
  fi
  set -A days `cal $month $year`
  xday=${days[$(( ${#days[*]}-1 ))]}
  day=$((xday + day))
fi

print $year-$month-$day
print $month/$day/${year#??}

You may also want to look at Yesterday




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48 comments




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---July 13, 2004

The following command will do the job without any mess.

$ date --date='1 day ago'


- amber

---July 13, 2004


Thanks Amber!

It's only true on Linux, but that does point out the importance of reading "info date" instead of just "man date" - you won't find that option spelled out fully in the man page, but the info doc does explain it.

--
TonyLawrence




---August 4, 2004

The script doesn't work.
When day becomes smaller then -9, then, by the typesetting of -Z2, day == 10. While 10 !&lt;=0, you'll get a date you've never expected.

Norbert Groen

---August 25, 2004

need any formated string? and like perl. so take:

$|=1; # flush output

$rightnow=time() - (24 * 60 * 60);

($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday) = localtime
($rightnow);
$mon +=1; # always that

$mon = '0' . $mon if ( length $mon &lt; 2 );

$mday = '0' . $mday if ( length $mday &lt; 2 );

$yesterday = ( $year + 1900 ) . '.' . $mon . '.' . $mday;

print $yesterday . "\n";

exit 0;





---December 8, 2004

echo $(date --date='1 day ago' +%Y%m%d)

worked fine on linux, thankx "Amber"

-merouane


---December 13, 2004

here the script of tapani in pure bash

#!/bin/bash

OFFSET=1;

eval `date "+day=%d; month=%m; year=%Y"`

# Subtract offset from day, if it goes below one use 'cal'

# to determine the number of days in the previous month.

day=`expr $day - $OFFSET`

if [ $day -le 0 ] ;then

month=`expr $month - 1`

if [ $month -eq 0 ] ;then

year=`expr $year - 1`

month=12

fi

set `cal $month $year`

xday=${$#}

day=`expr $xday + $day`

fi

echo $year-$month-$day


P.s.= i'm sorry but this editing loss indentation

--
stetor





---December 13, 2004



---December 28, 2004

Hi,
My problem is that i want to compute a date (before or after) based on a fixed date.
For example my shell parameter is : D='12/25/2004'
and i want to obtain D-5, D+2, D+4, D+5
Before starting to write a complex shell script, i want to be sure that i cannot use the date command. Any ideas ?

Thanks
Chris





Wed Mar 16 20:44:49 2005: 185   TonyLawrence

gravatar
Robert Wolf sent email as follows:

Your script on your web page, has a bug in it, below is the corrected version. For example when you set N to a large value like 25 or 26 or 27 or 28 then depending on the current day of the month, the variable 'day' will be more than 2 digits, i.e. -10 say. Now the value '-10' will not fit in a 'typeset -Z2' variable, it needs to be 'typeset -Z3'.

#!/bin/ksh
# Get yesterday's date in YYYY-MM-DD format.
# With argument N in range 1..28 gets date N days before.
# Tapani Tarvainen January 2002
# This code is in the public domain.

OFFSET=${1:-1}

case $OFFSET in
*[!0-9]* | ???* | 3? | 29) print -u2 "Invalid input" ; exit 1;;
esac

eval `date "+day=%d; month=%m; year=%Y`
typeset -Z3 day month
typeset -Z4 year

# Subtract offset from day, if it goes below one use 'cal'
# to determine the number of days in the previous month.
day=$((day - OFFSET))
if (( day <= 0 )) ;then
month=$((month - 1))
if (( month == 0 )) ;then
year=$((year - 1))
month=12
fi
set -A days `cal $month $year`
xday=${days[$(( ${#days[*]}-1 ))]}
day=$((xday + day))
fi

typeset -Z2 day month
print $year-$month-$day
print $month/$day/${year#??}






Tue Jun 7 15:43:38 2005: 624   anonymous


"date --date=yesterday" or "date -d yesterday" works with 'gnu date', not only on linux.
"date --version" will tell you, if your system uses 'gnu date':

save-lin:/ # date --version
date (coreutils) 5.2.1
Written by David MacKenzie.

Copyright (C) 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

-thomas



Tue Mar 21 08:23:48 2006: 1801   anonymous


I see only script for yesterday date.
Why no one post about how to find tomorrow date?



Tue Mar 21 14:35:45 2006: 1803   BigDumbDinosaur


I see only script for yesterday date. Why no one post about how to find tomorrow date?

Try carefully reading the entire page, bucko. The answer is right there in front of you. Geesh!



Thu Feb 22 20:22:36 2007: 2873   anonymous


Screw all that calculation crap. Here is a one-liner to provide yesterday's date in a shell variable.

YEST=`TZ="GMT+24" date +'%Y%m%d'`

that will provide yesterday in CCYYMMDD format. Don't like that format?
Change it by consulting strftime on your system.



Fri Feb 23 15:13:54 2007: 2874   BigDumbDinosaur


Screw all that calculation crap. Here is a one-liner to provide yesterday's date in a shell variable.

YEST=`TZ="GMT+24" date +'%Y%m%d'`

that will provide yesterday in CCYYMMDD format. Don't like that format? Change it by consulting strftime on your system.


You can rearrange the date parameters to produce a different format. For example:
YEST=`TZ="GMT+24" date +'%m/%d/%Y'`
will produce a MM/DD/YYYY format.

If you need to go back more than a day just increment the GMT parameter by 24 per day. For example:
YEST=`TZ="GMT+72" date +'%m/%d/%Y'`
gives you the date of three days ago. To go forward, make the GMT parameter negative, e.g.:
YEST=`TZ="GMT-24" date +'%m/%d/%Y'`
gives you the date of the next day. You could also write that as:
YEST=`TZ="GMT-$((24*ND))" date +'%m/%d/%Y'`
with KSH or BASH, where ND is the number of days. The maximum range for ND is +/- 365 days.



Fri Feb 23 17:32:33 2007: 2875   TonyLawrence

gravatar
Sigh..

The TZ method was mentioned in the article body and as pointed out there and in the News articles referenced, IT WON'T ALWAYS WORK.







Fri Feb 23 18:43:19 2007: 2877   BigDumbDinosaur


The TZ method was mentioned in the article body and as pointed out there and in the News articles referenced, IT WON'T ALWAYS WORK.

I wasn't reinventiing the wheel and I didn't say that it was 100 percent reliable. <Smile> I was merely pointing out how that method could be extended with a little twiddling.

For my applications, I use a small C program that reads STDIN for a date in YYYYMMDD format, converts it to a SQL date number, adds X number of days (which if negative, goes back in time), converts the result back to YYYYMMDD format and writes that on STDOUT. It's trustworthy from October 1752 (the first full month after the British empire adopted the Gregorian calendar) to December 31, 9999.



Tue May 1 12:24:04 2007: 2984   anonymous


errr.... how about:

yday=$(date --date "1 day ago")



Tue May 1 12:26:04 2007: 2985   TonyLawrence

gravatar
How about you actually READ everything written?



Sun Nov 30 19:00:45 2008: 4831   anonymous


Great solution! Never knew of that option but now that I do it makes things alot easier.



Thu Apr 30 20:27:26 2009: 6296   BenKershner

gravatar
You can one line it in OS X:
date -r $(expr $(date +%s) + 86400)

... to which you can add date arguments:
date -r $(expr $(date +%s) + 86400) +%y%m%d

... yielding tomorrow's date in YYMMDD format. Yesterday could be found by subtracting 86400, and multiples thereof.



Fri May 1 16:37:02 2009: 6301   TonyLawrence

gravatar
Ayup, that's nice, thanks.

(though it really is better if you read the WHOLE article before jumping to make a comment that's already in there!)



Fri Jun 5 05:58:02 2009: 6443   anonymous

gravatar
I see why the simpler shell solution doesn't always work. However the improved version is more complicated than I need it.
This is sufficient for my purpose (machine uses UTC):
#!/bin/bash
typeset -i H
H=$(date '+%H')+1
TZ=UTC$H date '+%Y%m%d'






Fri Jun 5 10:31:20 2009: 6445   TonyLawrence

gravatar
Nothing wrong with that. It's important to realize the potential issues, but if they don't apply to you, go for it.



Mon Jun 8 20:29:16 2009: 6473   snoopy

gravatar
Just my two cents, but the TZ really does not work too well. I have used this in my code/scripts for the past two years and found some strange behavior. It used to run on Solaris 8 fine, I think, but now we are on Solaris 10 and anything beyond 6 days causes it to fail. I am not sure if this was failing before or not.


For example:

date
Mon Jun 8 20:22:55 GMT 2009

YEST=`TZ="GMT+72" date +'%m/%d/%Y'`
echo $YEST
06/05/2009

YEST=`TZ="GMT+144" date +'%m/%d/%Y'`
echo $YEST
06/02/2009

YEST=`TZ="GMT+168" date +'%m/%d/%Y'`
echo $YEST
06/08/2009

-- After 144 hours the thing is AFU.


I tried to do this in Perl instead: Name the following as ydate.pl, and run with the argument as the amount to subtract. ./ydate.pl 8 I incorporate it as a subroutine to calculate date. Or you can use it as is and use bash or korn to make an external call to calculate.

#!/usr/bin/perl

$var1 = $ARGV[0];

sub ydate {

my $var=shift;

$subtract = ($var * 24 * 60 * 60); # Calculate the number of seconds in a day, $var is a day multiplier.

($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = gmtime( (time() -($subtract))); # Get time

$year += 1900; # Add amount of years to add to current year, necessary for Perl.
$mon += 1; # Add 1 to month of year variable, localtime month is "0" based.
$mon = sprintf("%02d", $mon ); # Add 2 decimal places, necessary if mon is 1-9.
$mday = sprintf("%02d", $mday ); # Add 2 decimal places, necessary if mday is 1-9.

return "${year}${mon}${mday}";

}

print "DATE: " . (&ydate($var1)) . "\n";

Hope it helps.



Wed Aug 19 08:56:25 2009: 6767   archanamangamuri

gravatar
#!/usr/bin/perl

my $yesterday=`date -d 'yesterday' +%Y%m%d`;
chomp($yesterday);
print"date $yesterday\n";






Wed Aug 19 10:50:34 2009: 6768   TonyLawrence

gravatar
Wow!

Useless use of Perl award, pointless use of "chomp", plus extra points for not reading, and more points for being Linux specific.









Tue Dec 29 12:21:30 2009: 7833   anonymous

gravatar


This command does not work in solaris



Tue Dec 29 12:57:10 2009: 7834   TonyLawrence

gravatar


This command does not work in solaris

As this article mentions Gnu date, shell scripts and Perl, SOMETHING does work.



Mon Jan 4 21:16:59 2010: 7861   skyvin

gravatar


Based on experience, to just get yesterday's date, like someone had mentioned above, I too like to use `date --date=yesterday` to get yesterday's date in YYYYMMDD format. I use this line in many of my .ksh scripts.

See below:
=========
oracle@pubdb1 stage>$ YESTERDAY=`date --date=yesterday +'%Y%m%d'`
oracle@pubdb1 stage>$ echo $YESTERDAY
20100103
oracle@pubdb1 stage>$

It's an easy one-liner, and I use it several .ksh scripts that run in cron on the first of the month where I need to get last day and first day of the previous month (in YYYMMDD format), to run monthly reports. Hope this helps. - Vince.







Mon Jan 4 21:16:11 2010: 7862   TonyLawrence

gravatar


Again (and I know I'll be saying this over and over until I get so sick of it that I close comments on this page) THAT'S GNU DATE. Not everyone has GNU date, not everyone has Linux, but on we go.



Wed Mar 17 03:35:14 2010: 8228   WesleyDevAndrew

gravatar


#! /bin/bash

date=`date +%d-%m-%Y`
#echo "Please input date in format dd-mm-yyyy"
#read date

day=`echo $date | awk -F\- '{print $1}'`
month=`echo $date | awk -F\- '{print $2}'`
year=`echo $date | awk -F\- '{print $3}'`

export date day month year

if [ ${day}${month} -eq 0101 ]
then
yesterdate=31-12-`expr $year - 1`
echo $yesterdate
exit
fi

if [ $day -eq 01 ]
then
yestermonth=`expr $month - 1`
yestermonth=`printf "%02d\n" $yestermonth`
yesterday=`cal $yestermonth $year | tail -1 | head -1 | awk '{print $NF}'`
if [ $yesterday ]
then
yesterday=`printf "%02d\n" $yesterday`
else
yesterday=`cal $yestermonth $year | tail -2 | head -1 | awk '{print $NF}'`
if [ $yesterday ]
then
yesterday=`printf "%02d\n" $yesterday`
else
yesterday=`cal $yestermonth $year | tail -3 | head -1 | awk '{print $NF}'`
yesterday=`printf "%02d\n" $yesterday`
fi
fi
yesterdate=${yesterday}-${yestermonth}-${year}
echo $yesterdate
exit
fi

yesterday=`expr $day - 1`
yesterday=`printf "%02d\n" $yesterday`
yesterdate=${yesterday}-${month}-${year}
echo $yesterdate
exit






Wed Mar 17 10:18:43 2010: 8229   TonyLawrence

gravatar


Wouldn't it be better to put GNU date on?



Sun Mar 21 16:53:56 2010: 8251   WesleyDevAndrew

gravatar


Well, I think we don't have GNU date in Solaris. We don't even have the "-d" option here. We would be happy to have it by default.
It works in Bourne Shell also. Hope my script works on all flavours of unix. Let me know if you come across any bug , I'll try to fix it.



Sun Mar 21 19:09:32 2010: 8252   TonyLawrence

gravatar


I bet you can find a compiled version for Solaris - or download it yourself.



Tue Apr 27 05:15:44 2010: 8480   anirban

gravatar


#include<stdio.h>
#include<time.h>
#include<stdlib.h>

#define ONEDAY 60*60*24

time_t time(time_t *tloc);
char *ctime(const time_t *clock);

main(int argc, char **argv)
{
time_t theTime;
int offset = 0;

if (argc > 1) offset = atoi(argv[1]);

theTime = time((time_t *) NULL);

theTime += (long) (offset * ONEDAY);

printf("\nToday's date : %s\n",ctime(&theTime));
}


//execute n put in 1 as argument - this vil giv u tomorrow's date
//put -1 as argument - give giv u yesterday's date & time

//let me know if its helpful 4 u



Tue Nov 2 03:54:44 2010: 9086   anonymous

gravatar


Hi Guys,

I am still learning this, but I work in Solaris, and Solaris does not have GNU date, none of the above works. :) Also, the rest of the coding makes it very difficult for a guy like me to get to the point, yesterday's date. A very simple 2 lines can achieve this with the results you might want, and it woks in Solaris and in bash. I know allot of people say fooling the timezone is not a good method, but it is effective and I haven't seen a fault my scripts yet. :)

#!/bin/bash
ydate=`TZ=GMT+22 date +%Y%m%d`
echo $ydate






Tue Nov 2 10:14:14 2010: 9088   TonyLawrence

gravatar


OK. Again, did you read everything? I would guess no, right?







Wed Nov 3 05:15:52 2010: 9092   anonymous

gravatar


Hi,

My apologies, I was a bit over eager. :)



Wed Nov 3 17:09:04 2010: 9093   WesleyDevAndrew

gravatar


Well, the timezone option actually works, if you need a quick solution.

However caution to any one if new to this,
1) Be sure to use the substitution to avoid changing TZ of the whole script.
2) Please ensure that you use the TZ increment appropriate for you location. For example, Indian Timezone is GMT+5:30. Hence the increment value = time calculation(24:00 - 05:30). The final command will be:

TZ="GMT+18:30" date +'%Y%m%d'



Wed Nov 3 17:15:09 2010: 9094   WesleyDevAndrew

gravatar


Moreover, I prefer to use solutions based on shell because, doing compilation, installation of new packages, and stuff like that in PROD environment means headache from management. You know, approvals and all.



Fri Aug 26 03:46:31 2011: 9742   anonymous

gravatar


Please correct me if I am wrong:
I have read through the whole list of messages and the "caution" by WesleyDevAndrew of using TZ and TonyLawrence mention to read all the info.
I have 1 question/issue: I did not see anyone specifically mention what/how/when the TZ "doesn't always work".
Is it that it "doesn't always work" for those with daylight-saving or whatever.

For me, I believe it will always work if the system is not using "daylight saving".
For my side as we do not use "daylight saving". Our server is always using default of TZ=Hongkong (i.e. always UTC+8 or GMT+8)
So in order to get the date/time yesterday (I only need to minus 1 day = 24hours): DYESTERDAY="`TZ=GMT+16 date`" (8+16=24)
As I use the variable and only need to use it reference (to get yesterday's online data from my log), I am sure it will work 100% always.
Am I correct or did I miss anything ?
Because I need to use it on my production system but I get worried when it keep see the wording "doesn't always work"; "IT WON'T ALWAYS WORK" but did not see what is the "doesn't always work" (except the 1 mention by WesleyDevAndrew )








Fri Aug 26 10:03:45 2011: 9743   TonyLawrence

gravatar


It's hard for me to believe you are still running a system that doesn't have an improved "date"!

This goes back so far that I barely remember such systems, but yes, the concern was DST and leap years.



Tue Sep 11 01:55:38 2012: 11294   pelican

gravatar


I need to run a report for the months starting from the Apr which is the start of budget year.
For example, if today is Sep 2012, then the start is Apr 2012, so I need to get the answer (2012).
But if today is Mar 2012, then the start is also Apr 2011, in that case I want the answer as (2011), which is -1 of the current year.

How can I do it?






Tue Sep 11 09:52:38 2012: 11296   TonyLawrence

gravatar


how to find the year of the last April

That's trivial: If today is less than your target date, subtract 1 from the year.






Wed Feb 5 08:06:29 2014: Website: http://www.fresse.org12413   SebastianFreundt

gravatar


May I point out a toolset of date calculation tools I wrote. They are portable and should wok on any *nix flavour: http://www.fresse.org/dateutils/

The standard +/- n days is covered by dadd(1):

$ dadd today -3d
$ dadd 2014-02-05 -3d

More interestingly the last week bit can be calculated using the dround(1) tool:
To get the current week:

$ dround today -- -Mon
$ dround today +Sun

Then to get the week before that, pipe the output to dadd -1w

$ { dround today -- -Mon; dround today +Sun; } | dadd -1w

Also noteworthy, all tools are environment agnostic, you can specify the timezone(s) or formats to operate with through switches, so a chain of commands will work everywhere the same way.






Wed Feb 5 11:42:06 2014: Website: 12414   TonyLawrence

gravatar


Thanks, Sebastian. I would have bet that I had mentioned those somewhere around this site, but if I did, I can't find it!

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